January 23: This Day That Year
- 1556 - China: Shaanxi Earthquake killed 830,000+ in Shensi Province. - 1571 - UK: Queen Elizabeth I of England opens Royal Exchange in London.
- 1737 - Birthday: John Hancock, American merchant & statesman who was 1st to sign the Declaration of Independence, born in Braintree, Massachusetts.
- 1849 - Elizabeth Blackwell became 1st woman in the US to earn a medical degree.
- 1899 - Emilio Aguinaldo was sworn in as President of the First Philippine Republic.
- 1904 - Norway: Alesund was devastated by fire, leaving 10,000 people homeless and one person dead.
- 1907 - USA: Charles Curtis of Kansas becomes 1st Native American US senator.
- 1918 - Birthday: Gertrude B. Elion who developed leukemia and herpes drug treatments (Nobel 1988), born in NYC, New York. - 1932 - El Salvador army kills 4,000 protesting farmers. - 1933 - USA: 20th amendment, which changed the date of presidential inaugurations to 20th January, was ratified. - 1945 - World War II: Karl Dönitz launches Operation Hannibal.
- 1957 - Indian nationalist V. K. Krishna Menon (8 hours over 2 days) begins the longest ever speech defending India's stand on Kashmir at the UN.
- 1961 - Venezuela adopts its constitution.
- 1978 - Sweden becomes the first country to ban aerosol sprays, believed to be damaging to earth's ozone layer.
- 1993 - Indian Airlines B737 crashes at Aurangabad (State: Maharashtra), killed 61. - 2002 - Pakistan: Reporter Daniel Pearl kidnapped and murdered in Karachi. - 2012 - In protest against Iran's alleged nuclear weapons program, European Union agrees to embargo Iranian oil. - 2013 - Iraq: 23+ people were killed in a mosque suicide bombing in Tuz Khormato.
- 2013 - Nigeria: 18 people were killed in a market shooting in Damboa.
- 2013 - US armed forces overturns ban (1994) on women serving in combat. - 2015 - Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud becomes crowned King of Saudi Arabia after death of this half-brother King Abdullah.
- 2016 - USA: Category 5 blizzard delivers record 3ft of snow to the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast US, killed 55 and causing estimated $500m - $3bn economic losses